The former monk Hsaya San sparked a rebellion by mobilising peasants in rural Burma after protests against taxes and British disrespect towards Buddhism. Date: 10 December 2020: Source: Own work: Author: Havsjö : Licensing. Negotiations then began with the British over the disarming of the AFO, which earlier in March the same year had been transformed into a united front comprising the Patriotic Burmese Forces, the Communists and the Socialists, and renamed the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL). If they start shooting, you shoot back. Burma Independence Army is within the scope of WikiProject Myanmar, a project to improve all Myanmar related articles on Wikipedia. In the end, only a small number of PBF troops were selected for the army, with most being sent home with two months pay. The Japanese advanced into Burma and by the end of 1942 had occupied the country. [5] The census was especially hard on Burmese identity due to the variation of names and the habit of villagers to move between various families. Japan declared independence … The BIA's attempts at establishing a government during the invasion led to it being dissolved by the Japanese and the smaller Burma Defence Army (BDA) formed in its place. [23][24], As the Japanese and the BIA entered Burma, the BIA gained a lot of support from the civilian population and were bolstered by many Bamar volunteers. We know the junta was horrific; the government was considered a pariah state. Student protests, backed by the Buddhist clergy, also led to "National schools" being created in protest against the colonial education system. As part of the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League, the BNA was re-labelled the Patriotic Burmese Forces (PBF) during a joint Allied–Burmese victory parade in Rangoon on 23 June 1945. The top Japanese agent in the country was Naval Reservist Kokubu Shozo, who had been resident there for several years and had contacts with most of the anti-British political groups. [26], Throughout the invasion, the swelling numbers of the BIA were involved in attacks on minority populations (particularly the Karens) and preyed on Indian refugees fleeing from the Japanese. The Burma Independence Army (BIA) was a collaborationist and revolutionary army that fought for the end of British rule in Burma by assisting the Japanese in their conquest of the country in 1942 during World War II.It was the first post-colonial army in Burmese history. Burma achieved independence from British rule on 4 January 1948. In the early 1940s, Aung San and other 29 participants secretly went for t… While at university, he became an influential political leader and created a new platform for educated nationalistic students who were intent upon a Burmese Independent state. There were informal contacts between the AFO and the Allies in 1944 and 1945 through the British Force 136. As Japan guided Burma towards nominal independence, the BDA was expanded into the Burma National Army (BNA) of the State of Burma, a puppet state under Ba Maw, in 1943. The resulting hardships and Japanese militaristic attitudes turned the majority Burman population against the Japanese. Attempts over the administration of Moulmein, the Japanese 55th Division had flatly refused Burmese requests and even forbade them to enter the town. Burma Command separated from the Indian Army at this time. Under Japanese occupation it became the Burma Defence Army (1942) and then the Burmese National Army (1943). The initial contacts were always indirect. With the help of a propaganda campaign from the BIA, Suzuki was welcomed by the Burmese people since word was spread that "Bo Mo Gyo" (Suzuki) was a decedent of the Prince of Myingun, a Burmese prince in the direct line of succession to the Burmese throne who had been exiled after a failed rebellion to Saigon, where he died in 1923. These traditions were very different from Western culture and not compatible with the British imposed census. Aung San became Minister of Defence in the new regime, with the new rank of Major General and Bo Let Ya as his Deputy. The Japanese refuse to give it? the BIA was disarmed and disbanded on 24 July. Its Head of State became Dr. Ba Maw, an outspoken anti-colonial politician imprisoned by the British before the war. Burma Independence Army. There are 300 burma independence army-related words in total, with the top 5 most semantically related being army, soldierly, paratroops, military and warlike.You can get the definition(s) of a word in the list below by tapping the question-mark icon next to it. The Japanese later made contact with Aung San in China who had reached Amoy when he was detained by Suzuki. You should proclaim it yourselves. [11] After the outbreak of the Second World War, the Thakins, combined with the Poor Man's Party to create the Freedom Bloc, which opposed cooperation with the British war effort unless Burma was guaranteed independence immediately after the war and threatened to increase its anti-British and anti-war campaign. The Burma National Army (Burmese: ဗမာ့အမျိုးသားတပ်မတော်; Burmese pronunciation: [bəma̰ əmjó ðá taʔ mədɔ̀]) served as the armed forces of the Burmese government created by the Japanese during World War II and fought in the Burma Campaign. [25] Burma finally became independent on 4 January 1948. On 29 March 1942, a detachment from the British 7th Armoured Brigade commanded by Brigadier John Henry Anstice was retreating from nearby Paungde. In Burma the embryonic military, known as the Burma Independence Army, was first formed during the Second World War by anti-colonial Burmese nationalists in collaboration with the Japanese. When awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, Aung San Suu Kyi was called “One of the most extraordinary examples of civil courage in Asia in recent decades.” She has said that one of her inspirations was South Africa’s successful struggle to end apartheid led by peacemakers like Nelson … [42] Those near the British front-lines around the Irrawaddy River requested arms and supplies from Allied units operating in this area. Burma-Myanmar: Kachin Independence Army (KIA) launches attack against military junta troops to seize major road from Mansi to Namkham Aung San and 29 others, the future officers and core of the Burma Independence Army, known as the Thirty Comrades, left Burma in April 1941 and were trained on Hainan Island in leadership, espionage, guerrilla warfare and political tactics. Even the officers of the BNA were obliged to salute low-ranking privates of the Imperial Japanese Army as their superiors. The ethnic nationalities in Burma, such as the Arakan, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni, Mon and Shan have their own separate homelands and military and political organisations. The Thakins looked elsewhere for support and planned on setting up ties with the Chinese communists. Aung San flew to China in 1940, intent to make contact with them in order to discuss investments into an independent Burmese Army. Burma is a large country in South East Asia. [15][16], On 7 December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and Britain. They subsequently disbanded the BIA and formed a smaller Burma Defense Army, with Aung San still as commander. Future changes to Burma included the establishment of land titles, payment of taxes to the British, records of births and deaths and the introduction of census that included personal information, including information pertaining to jobs and religion. [25] The Japanese provided few weapons to the BIA, but they armed themselves from abandoned or captured British weapons. [19][1] Many of the volunteers who joined the BIA were however not officially recruited, but rather officials or even criminal gangs who took to calling themselves BIA to further their own activities. [25] In December 1944, the AFO contacted the Allies indicating their readiness to launch a national uprising which would include the BNA. The BIA was formed from group known as the Thirty Comrades under the auspices of the Imperial Japanese Army after training the Burmese nationalists in 1941. General Aung San and other Burmese nationalists established the Burma Independence Army (BIA) in December 1941. [25], The Japanese were routed from most of Burma by May 1945. [7], The first major organised armed rebellion occurred between 1930 and 1932 and was called The Hsaya Rebellion. [22][28], One action in which the BIA played a major part was at Shwedaung, near Prome, in Southern Burma. Most of the BIA's casualties resulted from inexperience and lack of equipment. It was seen as a province of British India until 1937, when it was granted an element of independence within the British Empire. British contro… [1][25][37] After the change in leadership, Aung Sun tried to push for what he considered the true mission of the army, which was not just a military group composed of the Thakins, but an army of "true patriots irrespective of political creed or race and dedicated to national independence".[38][39]. The Japanese knew little about Burma at the time and had few contacts within the country. On 28 December, at a ceremony in Bangkok, the Burma Independence Army (BIA) was officially formed. Would infiltrate Rangoon and move into Burma for guerilla actions, This page is based on the Wikipedia article. Bo Ne Win (who would much later become the dictator of Burma after World War II) became Commander-in-Chief of the expanded Burma National Army (BNA). 1940s - Burman nationalists are trained by Japan with an understanding that the Japanese will help Burma gain independence from the British. They installed a nominally independent Burmese government under Ba Maw, and reformed the Burma Independence Army on a more regular basis as the Burma National Army under General Aung San. Eventually the British and Indian force broke free and continued their retreat, having lost ten tanks, two field guns and 350 men killed or wounded. The Japanese then occupied Burma, fighting Britain, the U.S. and other Allied forces from … [32] Thakin Tun Oke had been selected to be the political administrator and government organiser. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Japanese troops launched a military offensive against British Burma on January 16, … [17][18] The BIA initially numbered 227 Burmese and 74 Japanese. Colonel Keiji Suzuki, a staff officer at the Imperial General Headquarters in Japan, was given the task of devising a strategy for dealing with Southeast Asia and he produced a plan for clandestine operations in Burma. British rule in Burma began in 1824 after which the British steadily tightened its grip on the country and implemented significant changes to Burmese government and economy compared to Burma under the Konbaung dynasty before. BIA attempted to form local governments in Burma. Hirayama and Ikeda were both killed. [1][2], British rule in Burma began in 1824 after which the British steadily tightened its grip on the country and implemented significant changes to Burmese government and economy compared to Burma under the Konbaung dynasty before. Although Burma was nominally self-governing, the power of the State of Burma to exercise its sovereignty was largely circumscribed by wartime agreements with Japan. [44] Many scholars[who?] The army’s formation helped to create strong ties between the military and the government which are still present within Burmese society today. In August 1944, a popular front organisation called the Anti-Fascist Organisation (AFO) was formed with Thakin Soe, a founding member of the Communist Party of Burma, as leader. The desires of the Kachin resistance seem reasonable, and they are multifold. Though Burmese political leader Ba Maw and others later eulogised the BIA's participation in the battle, the official Japanese history never mentioned them. [12], Suzuki and Aung San flew to Tokyo. Bo Let Ya instead got the position while Aung San became a civilian political leader in the AFPFL and the leader of the People's Volunteer Organisation (PVO), ostensibly a veterans organisation for ex-BNA, but in reality a paramilitary force who were openly drilling in uniform with numbers eventually reaching 50,000. The Burma Independence Army (BIA) was formed in December 1941 in Bangkok, before the Thirty Comrades’ return to Myanmar. However, the BIA became the first truly national Burmese army and remains honoured in Burma today, with Aung San and many of the Thirty Comrades being seen as national heroes. All this, combined with Burma's exclusion from British proposals for limited self-government in Indian provinces (of which Burma was part of at the time), led to one of the earliest political nationalist groups, the General Council of Burmese Associations, who had split off from the apolitical Young Men's Buddhist Association. In Burma, there were two British Army infantry battalions, together with some Indian Army units. Force 136 was also able to make contacts with members of the BNA's Karen unit in Rangoon through agents dropped by parachute into the Karenni State, the Karen-populated area in the east of Burma. ", Aung San tried to establish a training school in Bhamo. The Burmese Independence Army (BIA) led the Burmese State to liberation from British rule in Burma with the help of the Japanese in 1941. [25], The BIA was the first major step of the towards Burmese independence without colonial powers involved, even though this result never genuinely occurred under the BIA or its successors. Rare footage of Genral Aung San when he was building an army for independence of Burma after World War II. The Burma National Army served as the armed forces of the Burmese government created by the Japanese during World War II and fought in the Burma Campaign.It was originally organised by, and fought alongside the Imperial Japanese Army, but later changed sides and fought alongside the Allies. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). On December 28, at a ceremony in Bangkok, the Minami Kikan was declared dissolved and the Burma Independence Army formed in its place. Hi there! In addition, the act stated that villages would provide lodging and food upon the arrival of colonial military or civil officials. [31] After the Japanese invasion of Burma the Japanese Commander of the 15th Army, Lieutenant-General Shōjirō Iida, recalled Suzuki to Japan. During 1944, the BNA made contacts with other political groups inside Burma, such as the communists who had taken to the hills in the initial invasion. The leader of the Burma Independence Army were declared with Keiji Suzuki as Commander-in-Chief, with Aung San as Senior Staff Officer. Other states Actions of the Burma Independence Army. [1] Most were from the majority Bamar population, but there was one battalion raised from the Karen minority. As the British General in the Burma Campaign William Slim put it: "It was not long before Aung San found that what he meant by independence had little relation to what the Japanese were prepared to give—that he had exchanged an old master for an infinitely more tyrannical new one. The Thirty Comrades, as well as Colonel Suzuki, had their blood drawn from their arms in syringes, then poured into a silver bowl and mixed with liquor from which each of them drank – thway thauk in time-honoured Burmese military tradition – pledging "eternal loyalty" among themselves and to the cause of Burmese independence. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Burma-Independence-Army. Aung San soon became disillusioned about Japanese promises of true independence and of Japan's ability to win the war. 1. The BIA, numbering initially 227 Burmese and 74 Japanese, formed several small units which would participate … Suzuki visited Burma secretly, posing as a journalist for the Yomiuri Shimbun under the name Masuyo Minami, in September 1940, meeting with political leaders Thakin Kodaw Hmaing and Thakin Mya. A major issue in the early 1900s was land alienation by Indian Chettiar moneylenders who were taking advantage of the economic situation in the villages. [33] Many in the BIA considered the Japanese suppression of them to be based on notions of racial superiority. 3. Unter der japanischen Besatzung wurde sie nun als Burma Defence Army (BDA) neu organisiert, ihr wurde der Status einer nationalen Armee zugewiesen. Burma's "independence," declared in August 1943, was to be … The worst atrocities against the Karens in the Irrawaddy Delta south of Rangoon cannot however be attributed to dacoits or unorganised recruits, but rather the actions of a subset of regular BIA and their Japanese officers. Meanwhile, Thailand was given territory in the Shan…, Known as the “Burma Independence Army,” it grew with the advance of the Japanese and tended to take over the local administration of occupied areas. The British denied the Freedom Bloc's demands and much of its leadership was imprisoned until after the Japanese invasion in 1942. The BIA's casualties were heavy; 60 killed, 300 wounded, 60 captured and 350 missing, who had deserted. What's the difficulty about that? On 28 December, at a ceremony in Bangkok, the Minami Kikan was declared dissolved and the [25][43][2] Aung San became head of the AFPFL in 1946 and continued the more peaceful struggle for Burmese independence until his assassination after the overwhelming victory of the AFPFL in the April 1947 constituent assembly elections. Suzuki was the group’s commander in chief, with the rank of General, and Aung San served below him as Chief of Staff. The Imperial Japanese Army maintained a large presence and continued to act arbitrarily, despite Japan no longer having official control over Burma. Serving as minister of defense in Ba Maw’s puppet government (1943–45), Aung San became skeptical of Japanese promises of Burmese independence, even if… Read More The Hsaya rebellion sparked a large emergence of organised anti-colonial politics in Burma during the 1930s. Even today, many Karen talk with bitterness about atrocities carried out against them by the … Die Burma Independence Army (BIA) war eine paramilitärische Widerstandsorganisation, die im Laufe des Feldzuges gegen die britischen Truppen an der Seite der Japaner gekämpft hatte. After discussions at the Imperial General Headquarters, it was decided in February 1941 to form an organisation named Minami Kikan, which was to support Burmese resistance groups and to close the Burma Road to China. It was to Imperial Japan that the independence hero, Aung San, and the "Thirty Comrades" traveled for military training, and more than 3,500 volunteers were armed by the Japanese in the Burma Independence Army (BIA), which entered the Karen hills from Thailand at the end of 1941 in the footsteps of the invading Japanese 15th Army. [10], Aung San was a nationalist student activist working for the cause of an independent Burma. On 7 December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and Britain. MMR - Burmská nezávislá armáda [1941-1942] Burma Independence Army. In the late 1930s, during the period of British rule, a few Myanmar organizations or parties formed an alliance named Burma's Htwet-Yet (Liberation) Group, one of them being Dobama Asiayone. … In April 1937, Burma was granted independence from India, becoming a semi-autonomous country reporting direct to the Colonel Office. [30] As the BIA's ranks had swelled with thousands of unorganised army and volunteers, with plenty of weapons spread throughout the country which led to widespread chaos, looting and killings were common. Instead, on 27 March, they openly declared war on the Japanese and rose up in a country-wide rebellion. [1], After secret contact with the British during 1944, on 27 March 1945, the BNA revolted against the Japanese. Through the communists, Aung San were eventually able to make contact with the British Force 136 in India. Two Japanese liaison officers named Hirayama and Ikeda accompanied the BIA. The Burma Independence Army forced the British out in 1941. On March 27, 1945, the In addition, the BIA did achieve results in its need to unite the Burmese as a single nation instead of many different smaller states. He and many other rebel leaders were executed and imprisoned after the rebellion was put down. Propaganda claiming that Bo Mo Gyo was to lead the resistance into restoring the throne soon spread throughout Burma, which helped to provide a format for the Burmese villagers to accept the involvement of Japanese help in overthrowing the British. The Burma Independence Army (BIA) was a collaborationist and revolutionary army that fought for the end of British rule in Burma by assisting the Japanese in their conquest of the country in 1942 during World War II.It was the first post-colonial army in Burmese history. [45], Significance of the Burma Independence Army today. I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license: This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. British insistence upon western medicine and inoculation was particularly distasteful to native residents of Burma. [19][20], The BIA formed was broken into six units which were assigned to participate in the invasion of Burma in January 1942, initially as intelligence-gatherers, saboteurs and foragers. 1958-60 - Caretaker government, led by army Chief of Staff General Ne Win, formed following a split in the ruling AFPFL … [1] Following the war, after tense negotiations, it was decided that the PBF would be integrated into a new Burma Army under British control, but many veterans would continue under old leadership in the paramilitary People's Volunteer Organisation (PVO) in the unstable situation of post-war Burma. attribute the failure of the BIA due to the lack of resources, lack of strong administrative control and the failure to include both the highland and lowland regions of Burma. [27] In one instance, which was also described in Kyaw Zaw's, one of the Thirty Comrades, memoirs, Colonel Suzuki personally ordered the BIA to destroy two large Karen villages and killing all within as an act of retribution after one of his officers was killed in an attack by anti-Japanese resistance. October 6, 2011 The Goal – A True Union of Hearts and Minds. [4] At the same time, thousands of Indian labourers migrated to Burma and, because of their willingness to work for less money, quickly displaced Burmese farmers, who instead began to take part in crime. This caused their numbers to grow to such a level that by the time the Japanese forces reached Rangoon on 8 March, the BIA numbered 10,000-12,000, and eventually expanded to between 18,000 and 23,000. Another detachment of two Indian battalions was sent to clear Shwedaung, which lay on Anstice's line of retreat and was held by the II Battalion of the Japanese 215th Regiment, commanded by Major Misao Sato, and 1,300 men belonging to the BIA under Bo Yan Naing, one of the Thirty Comrades. The situation was not immediately considered favourable by the British for a revolt by the BNA and there were internal disputes about supporting the BNA among them; the British had reservations over dealing with Aung San. The BIA flag. [citation needed] On the Allied side, operations in Burma over the remainder of 1942 and in 1943 were a study … The army received recognition as an ally from Supreme Allied Commander, Lord Mountbatten, who needed their assistance against retreating Japanese forces and to ease the strain between the army's leadership and the British. [35][36] An officers' training school was established in Mingaladon and the new force of 3,000 men were recruited and trained by Japanese instructors as regular army battalions instead of a guerrilla force during the second half of 1942. Burma independence army on wn network delivers the latest videos and editable pages for news & events, including entertainment, music, sports, science and more, sign up and share your playlists. On 29 9 2019 Arakan Army( AA) fought against Burma Independence Army(BIA) and two BIA were died, others BIA ran away. Die burma unabhängigkeitsarmee (bia) war ein kollaborateur und revolutionäre armee , dass für ende gekämpft britischen herrschaft in birma durch die unterstützung. In its place the Japanese created civil organisations designed to guide Burma toward puppet state. [25][1] The BNA eventually consisted of seven battalions of infantry and a variety of supporting units with a strength which grew to around 11,000-15,000 men. In pursuing those goals, it would recruit potential independence fighters in Burma and train them in Japans ally Thailand or Japanese occupied China. 1930s - The campaign for Burman independence is born. At the first meeting, the AFO represented itself to the British as the provisional government of Burma with Thakin Soe as Chairman and Aung San as a member of its ruling committee. The insensitive attitude of the Japanese Army extended to the BNA. These greetings would demonstrate Burmese submission and respect to British rule. [9] As more people joined the rebellion it evolved into a nationwide revolt which only ended after Hsaya San was captured after 2 years of insurrection. However, Supreme Allied Commander Louis Mountbatten was anxious to avoid a civil war and to secure the cooperation of Aung San, who had authority over thousands of highly politicised troops. 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