U.S. Census, 1850: Population Schedules of the Seventh Census of the United States. He died in 1863 and is buried here.”  The Washington County settlements, cemeteries and schools that Williams, White and many others helped establish and those that merit further investigation are listed below. 1996: 4: 297-320. With as many as 28 residents in the settlement, the families likely shared the work of threshing, butchering, and other farm work. Stith, Hana L. Illuminating an Ignored Legacy, African American History, Fort Wayne, Indiana. Accessed Aug. 22, 2014. William Henry Smith Memorial Library, Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, Indiana. African American rural settlements documented: 0. A railroad town founded on both the Eel and Wabash Rivers, Logansport had a thriving community, and the employment opportunities that existed there would have been a draw for migrating African American families. In terms of size and population, it is the smallest county within the state. It appears they had nine children, Nancy, Susannah, Silkey, Abigal, Patience, Matilda, Heskiah, Benjamin and Mathew. Accessed October 24, 2014. As in the previous decade the majority, 14 people, live in the town of Franklin. Her anti-slavery activities are commemorated with an historic marker in Jeffersonville.). “Village Creek Cemetery” [Van Horn burial site]. Shelbyville: A Pictorial History. : D.J. The band during this time period consisted of Best; bassist Stuart Sutcliffe; and guitarists McCartney, Harrison, and Lennon. In the Agricultural Schedule for 1850, Joshua Lyles owns 320 acres of land with a farm value of $500. Most of the black population lived in Monroe or Washington Township. Churubusco, Ind. Growth slowed in the next decade rising to 2,536 (28.7 percent). By Martina Nichols Kunnecke, August 27, 2014, African American rural settlements Cemetery Association erected markers recognizing sites where “Negro People” had been buried or there had been an “African American Community.” Thus, black pioneers were honored but remained blanketed in anonymity. The revised laws of Indiana, in which are comprised all such acts of a general nature as are in force in said state; adopted and enacted by the General Assembly at their fifteenth session…… Chapter LXVI Indianapolis: Douglass and Maguire (printers), 1831. Shawswick Township begins with 21 in 1850 and ends with 66 by 1870. Chicago: Warner, Beers and Co., 1885. Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana. Bethel Church and its graveyard were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1995 the significance being the architectural design, serving an African American community during the 1800s and being the burial site of two known black soldiers (Indiana Landmarks). At least two black rural settlements were established by 1870. Owen County was not listed in Xenia Cord’s analysis of rural black settlements prior to 1860. Putt-Slater, Dawne, The Genealogy Center- Allen County Public Library, Fort Wayne, Ind. It seems notable that Shelbyville’s fire department was integrated. Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana. County histories note that “colored children were admitted to free common school privileges by an act of May 13, 1869. Accessed on August 22, 2014. In 1837, church met on land owned by Ishmael Roberts. John Delaney, born in Virginia about 1788, appears to be the nucleus of this community. Cottman, George S. “Old-Time Slums of Indianapolis.” Indiana Quarterly Magazine of History. Saloons were plentiful. Fulkerson, Alva Otis. Population of Civil Divisions Less Than Counties; Table III State of Indiana,” 1:124 Eighth Census of the United States, 1860. One of its pastors, Rev. Nicol made the most of his time, signing autographs and giving interviews. Bureau of the United States Census, National Archives & Records, 10th Census. He continues, “The precise reasons for the decline…are unexplained, but racial prejudice was common. Today all that remains of the settlement is a black cemetery on the west side of County Road 825 West, one half mile north of State Road 47. Aspinall also temporarily served as the group's manager following Epstein's death. In 1850, there were 21 black landowners in Jennings County, whose real estate was collectively valued at $8,140 (Heller). Beech Settlement experienced an influx of settlers directly from eastern North Carolina as well. Small farms with sandy soil. “Indiana African American Survey of Historic Sites and Structures,” Library Collection, Indiana Landmarks State Headquarters, Indianapolis. Interview with Georgia Cravey at various Pike Township locations including Reed Road in Eagle Creek Park. Chicago: W.H. Chicago: Arcadia Publishing, 2002. Wayne Township, Marion County Interim Report. : 71.2003.1”. In the 1870 census when the black population increases to twenty-four persons, the Goines are enumerated as mulatto rather than white. He was in Indiana before moving on to Michigan, and Illinois. U.S. Bureau of the Census. By Martina Nichols Kunnecke, September 5, 2014. In addition, at about the time that he was to have left the country, he disappears from the census. Around 1840, the Rush Settlement was formed in Ervin and bordering Clay townships. Free shipping for many products! The county’s population surged to 169 in 1880 and has since trended upward, enumerating 41,618 African Americans in the 2010 census. Sympathetic people came to his aid and Douglass was able to escape to a nearby farm where he was nursed back to health. In 1880, there were 6 people, all single individuals from Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, whose surnames were Corington, Curtes, Shelby and Wheat. Audrey C. Werle’s research also suggests there may have been a pre-Civil War settlement or community within the settlement. Sixth Census of the United States, 1840. A truer picture of the African American population in Decatur County must also be combined with a black community across the county line in Franklin County. Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana. In 1840 the federal census indicated a total of thirteen free people of color residing in the county distributed as follows: Washington Township, population 2; Licking Township, population 1; and Harrison Township, population 10. The county was formed in 1830. In 1870 there are a total of 14 African Americans in Blackford County all residing in Licking Township. An analysis of the 1880 census indicated that the largest number of adults enumerated were from Kentucky (117 persons of the 172 adult total). Corydon was Indiana’s territorial capital from 1813-1816 . Taylor’s personal story of his life in slavery, travels to Indiana and the obstacles he encountered is told in a book that he dictated to his daughter in 1867. Fugit Township was the area in the county that was settled earliest. Note also that the Washington County Negro Register (1853-1865), reflects Scott County as the birthplace for four of five “Jacksons” registering. Bishop Paul Quinn founded Bethel AME Church in the city in 1836. The federal decennial censuses recorded the following blacks: 2 in 1840; 9 in 1850; 21 in 1860; and 3 in 1870. Mentioned in Jeffersonville newspaper accounts as early as 1873; has news brief in 1887 on topic of church rally held by Pastor E. Miller. Beatty and the Hume families from Kentucky are two surnames associated with this community. Like neighboring counties Wayne and Randolph, Henry County was populated by significant numbers of Quakers from North Carolina. It was a popular destination for people of modest means and of Swiss ancestry. Though retaining his wealth, Williams died similarly—presumably at the hand of white assailants. Further research could clarify the labor patterns in the largely agrarian Switzerland Co. The 1840, 1850, and 1860 census show no African Americans living in the county except a Joseph Jones, who in 1850, worked in the home of Jacob Wright. Established in 1821, its initial permanent white settlers were first generation South Carolinians of Irish descent, who acquired their land through the Cincinnati Land Office. In time he added to his holdings accumulating 121 acres on Alquina Road east of Connersville. “U.S. A noted early settler was Andrew Ferguson. Quinn, Angela M.  [Bound—unpublished notes—in UGRR notebook-Angela Quinn—Allen County Public Library]. William Edmonson and David Smith wrote letters on his behalf. Bureau of the United States Census, National Archives & Records, Indiana Federal Population Census Schedules, and Volume: Reel 00257 – 1860. Located near the western edge of Clarksville; adjoins the B&O railroad. Benton County IN Gen Web. ), African American rural settlements documented: 3. His wife had died a week previous to Andrew’s death, and there were no known heirs that survived. There was another group of enslaved people brought to Reeve Township in Daviess County. Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 2001. Local resident Charles Bowers remembers that the Huggart farms included two apple orchards amongst the typical raising of livestock and general crop farming. The arrival of African Americans into Gibson County seems to have begun with Charles Grier. Harrison County. Revels used funds he had earned while working as a young barber’s apprentice to one of his brothers in their native North Carolina. Accessed April 25, 2001.URL no longer active. The 19th century African American population of Shelby County was small, but like neighboring Johnson County, shows a substantial increase between 1860 and 1870. Figures are as follows: Harrison, 1850 – 14, 1860 – 0, 1870 – 1; Jackson, 1850 – 0, 1860 – 7, 1870 -0; Jennings, 1850 – 2, 1860 – 0, 1870 -1; Orange 1850 – 0, 1860 – 17, 1870 – 1; and Posey, 1850 – 12, 1860 – 1; 1870 – 3. Heller, Herbert Lynn. Federal Population Census Schedules, Volume: Reel 00171 – 1850. Original book housed at the Indiana Historical Society BV1972 / transcribed by members of the Union Literary Institute Preservation Society, Inc. Union Literary Institute Preservation Society, Inc., 2001. They left Rowan County, North Carolina, with “a few slaves” for Clark County, Indiana, where some of the freed slaves remained with the Copples while others apparently migrated to Shelby County. The Negro in Indiana before 1900: A Study of a Minority. For example, farmers Davison Parter and Peter McCalister, have real estate worth $1600 and $4500, respectively. Whicker’s history of the Underground Railroad suggests that Quakers came up with the idea of using the swamps in the woods as a station, hiding hundreds of fugitive blacks in the brush and ponds from about 1826 until the Civil War. Baker, Ronald L. Homeless Friendless, and Penniless: The WPA Interviews with Former Slaves Living in Indiana. Later census data shows that the Morgans stayed in this area and various black families joined them. Between 1850 and 1870, the majority of the black population lived in Brown and Shelby townships. The most significant increase in population occurred in conjunction with the natural gas boom that began in the mid 1880s. His Virginia born wife Lakey and eight other individuals are listed as residing in Madison Township for the 1850, 1860 and 1870 census. ]: U.S. Dept. By1850, there were 161 people recorded in the census. The settlers of some 400 acres that made up this settlement were of various ethnicities including Native American, French, African American, and others. Warner: 1874 atlas by [D.J. The Marshall County Historic Crossroads Center has a research library with local history resources. Bureau of the United States Census, National Archives & Records, Indiana Federal Population Census Schedules, Volume: Reel 00321 – 1870. Zachariah and Richard Bassett served as ministers at the Free Union Baptist Church in Howard County. Wolf, Shirley. Rotman describes three main groups of immigrants: 1) Individuals and families with longstanding status as free people (p. 36). Information was also obtained  from the LaPorte County his-torian, Fern Eddy-Shultz. Melinda informed Abdy that they had come to the area about 1821, after living across the river in Kentucky- in fear of kidnapers, who had been stealing children of free people and selling them down south. Among the vertical files at the Rockville Public Library are John Hartwood’s freedom papers, filed at the Parke County courthouse in 1829, as well as an 1848 deed record where Lewis Artis and others acquired a parcel of land for religious and school purposes for the colored population living in Leatherwood (Penn Township). Black pioneers whose surnames were Roberts, Stewart, Chavis, Trevan, Archer and Anderson from North Carolina purchased large tracts of federal land by the 1830s. She observed that in 1850 Wayne County had the largest number of African Americans in the state and also had the largest number of Friends churches (p 48). Montgomery County’s 1853 Negro and Mulatto Register (which is at the Crawfordsville District Public Library and was not included in Coy D. Robbins’ compilation) refers to families with names such as Askins, Fry, Higgins, Johnson, Jones, Kern, Ketchum and Smith. Edinburgh experienced growth as well with a population of 24 (up from the 3 people counted in 1860). Maryland: Heritage Book Inc., 1994. ], The black population of Connersville and environs was large enough to support multiple church congregations. The Silence family may have had land before 1840, but it is believed that they were forced off the land. Members of farm families gravitated to towns and villages such as Cadiz, Greenville, Knightstown, Spiceland and New Castle. “Press Excursion: What the Editors Say about Jeffersonville.” Jeffersonville Evening News, June 20, 1873, p3. Accessed on August 23, 2014. Indianapolis: Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana, 1993. There is a limited source of records (including a newspaper record without a date) for an African Methodist Episcopal church formed in 1873 and located on E. Sinclair Street. Accessed July 24, 2014. Thornbrough, Emma Lou. Outside of this cluster of families in McClellan Township, the numbers of African Americans in the county are small. Family Maps of Boone County, Indiana. “Indiana’s African American Settlements.” Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center. At that time lots were purchased and a school house was built. One large rural settlement in the township extended into Posey Township, Franklin County and Fugit Township in Decatur County. The combined population of Blacks in this bi-county community was about 270. “41st Indiana Regiment / 2nd Indiana Cavalry in the American Civil War.” Civil War Index. Chicago: Brandt &Fuller, 1888. Indianapolis, Ind. Fletcher, Calvin. Johnson County Interim Report. African Americans had a presence in Wayne County from the beginning. “About 1853-1854 several families came from Cincinnati…they seemed to be progressive and set about soliciting donations… for a more modern school…A mulatto…Lafe Cambridge had subscribed and paid his money…When he sent his children, objections were raised because they were colored…The children were not permitted to attend.”. Two families prominent in the community arrived during the 1840s: the eponymous Weavers, free people from Orange County, North Carolina; and the Pettifoot/Pettiford family, also free people. The church purchased a lot in Hanna’s First Addition, which became the location of the first African American church in Fort Wayne. The church remains active today. Afro-Americans in Fort Wayne and the Surrounding Area. Clarksville, Indiana. By 1840 the neighborhood included about 10 families and 900 acres of land.”. County histories also relate that sentiments were in favor of “conciliation” and a “willing[ness] to continue slavery” rather than go to war. Audrey C. Werle “Research Notes on Indiana African American History,” M 792. Accessed June 8, 2014. Robbins, Coy D., ed. Accessed June 20, 2014. Gibbs, Wilma L., ed. The town attracted ship builders and others associated with maritime industries. The exodus is still considered somewhat of a mystery. They did not, however, have long tenure as the land seems to have been sold within a few years. Many of the residents of this settlement are buried here, including some of the later families that joined the Morgans. Wabash, Ind. Tipton County was one of the last counties to be organized in Indiana. More investigation needs to be done to discover if they were independent communities or how they relate to the better known settlements in Montgomery and Patoka townships. Our members enjoy exciting benefits like day trips that showcase the rich heritage of Indiana. The tavern would be located advantageously at a midway point between Indianapolis and Rush County, home to both the Beech settlement and the town of Carthage. Plat Book of Darke County, Ohio: Compiled from County records and Actual Surveys. diss., Indiana University, 1951. Some families (e.g., the “colored” Orrs and the Churchmans would retain their property through several decades.). In 1830 the census shows a total of six free people of color residing in the county. Bureau of Land Management, “Federal Land Patents,” accessed August 12, 2014. The following township descriptions illustrate where else in Clark County African Americans settled. Indiana Federal Population Census Schedules, Volume: Reel 0032 – 1830 Ripley, Switzerland, Parke, Fountain, Warren, Vanderburgh, Union, and Clay Counties. The index to the 1870 census lists 15 white heads of households whose households included black members. Terborg-Penn, Rosalyn. The ending date of this settlement is unknown. In 1875 a notorious lynching occurred. Wm. In 1820 there were a total of nine persons of color. Alexander Moss campaigned for a black school in Peru, was instrumental in establishing an African Methodist Episcopal church, and acquired a significant degree of wealth through his various land holdings. Accessed July 20, 2014. The only exception was from 1880 through 1890 when it fell by about 10%. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1986. Andreas, A T. Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Indiana. Starr rejoined the band on 14 June, in Melbourne. Prior to 1850 he purchased a farm near Ligonier in Perry Township, Noble County where he and his wife Josephine raised three children.”. Cord, Xenia. Franklin County. The nineteenth century African American population in Tipton County was small. Hamelle reports that in 1833 “only two residents were able to escape the onslaught of chills and fevers that griped the lowlands of Big Creek Township— Calvin C. Spencer and ‘a small, tough negro boy.’  Another account of an early appearance of African Americans in the county is in a February 1923 Monticello Herald story, where Mrs. Bell Tilton recalls that her parents and infant son with a colored maid came from Virginia in 1837. The 1870 Index also includes ten white heads of households with one or more African Americans in the household. Washington County. In 1881, this Baptist church moved into the city of Brazil where it still operates. xxi. Peterson, Roger A.  African Americans Found in Owen County, Indiana Records, 1819-1880. Quinn speculated that the Cannady family (residing in Washington Township, Allen County in the 1850 census) likely had contact with the Pompey family (early settlers of the Jefferies Settlement in Smith Township, Whitley County). Weintraut, Linda, “A Glimpse of the Past: Lyles and Weaver Settlements, 1850-1860,” Black History News & Notes, August, 1999. In the ensuing years, the black population dropped (to 196 by1860, and to 152 by 1870). “Meeting of the Shawnee Colonization Society,” Covington People’s Friends Newspaper, September 10, 1848. Mayer, Douglas L., comp. In just a superficial examination of a few records on Ancestry, it appears that some families enumerated in one decade as white (or at least without the letter W indicating white) and then enumerated as mulatto or black in other decades. : Brown County Genealogical Society, 1994. Montgomery, M.W. from their earliest settlement : containing a history of the counties, their cities, townships, towns, villages, schools, and churches; biographies, preliminary chapters on the history of the Northwest territory, the state of Indiana, and the Indians. A Twentieth Century History of Delaware County, Indiana. Few private houses in the larger cities were more spacious and ornate in decoration, though we believe that financial troubles interned before the planes (sic) were fully consummated.”  Without having access to the exact location of the Dunlap land in section 24 around Clear Lake, it was difficult to find any existing buildings that would have been used by these families. Accessed on August 22, 2014. [Photo of blacksmith shop, Weaver, Indiana]. The others are distributed in townships as follows: Moral, 7; Hendricks, 2;, Marion, 1. Robert, age 63, was born in Virginia; his wife, Malinda Green, age 49, was also from Virgina. Angela Quinn notes in her work on the Underground Railroad, “No evidence of Quaker assistance in organizing this settlement exists, although there is evidence of family ties connecting this settlement to the Weaver Settlement; scattered Free Black farmers in Eel River and Washington townships in Allen County, and to the urban community at Fort Wayne.” From an 1889 plat map, it appears that the Jefferies settlement was located near the Eel River, and the route carved out as “the Goshen Road” which ran, through the Jefferies Settlement, Ligonier, and Goshen, and northwards to Cass County, Michigan. Because he was not creatively involved with the band, Epstein was only infrequently called the "fifth Beatle", but over the years he and producer George Martin have been recognised as the two inner-circle members who most profoundly affected the band's career. (The enumeration is not available by township for 1840. In 1870, Dennis and his family appear again, this time listed as white. Lyda, John W. The Negro in the History of Indiana. Ancestry.com. She notes a “small community of people living at Norristown” by 1900 with kinship ties to a community located near Hope, Indiana, in northeast Bartholomew County (p 7). Harrison County. Tor. Skvarenina, Joseph. LaVergne, Tennessee: [n.p. Vernon, IN: Windmill Publications, 1993. Township population censuses confirm that only scant numbers of blacks lived outside the city of Fort Wayne during this time period. In 1870, Penn Township has ten African Americans. C. Chapman & Company, 1880. Bureau of the United States Census, National Archives & Records, Indiana Federal Population Census Schedules, and Volume: Reel 00145 – 1880. The census also shows 45 black people in Marion Township in 1850 and that number is up to 109 by 1870. The surnames Burnett, Thompson, Locust, Isom, Chavis, Clemens, Chandler are found in addition to the surnames Roberts, Thomas, Lindley and Dugged. Snell, Ronald David. Next to them, the McDonald family also owned land. Colonization programs and articles pertaining to “negro” migration appeared regularly in Vevay newspapers. Rush, Scott, Shelby, Spencer Counties. No settlements were found in Marshall County. Accessed: 6-10-14. There is a discrepancy about when the AME church or congregation was established. Draper appears on every census to 1870, where he appears to have established a family, owns real estate, and moved away from the Poynter family. For example, Hugh Bobson sold his 40-acre Beech homestead and bought 80 acres in Hancock County. By 1870 most of the blacks who reside in Lawrence County claim Indiana, Kentucky, North Carolina, and other southern states as their birthplaces. The Complete 1870 Federal Census of Kosciusko County Indiana. “Utica Township Schools Teachers” [n.a., n.d.,] Typescript. Another early black settler was Allison Snelling, Joseph Snelling’s son. Hendricks County has one known unnamed settlement in Guildford County. Warder, Steven W. Centennial History of Washington County, Indiana its people, industries and institutions: with biographical sketches of representative citizens and genealogical records of many of the old families. When Franklin County became official in 1811, people of African descent were already living along the Whitewater River. It was established in 1869. Woodland Hills, California: Windsor Publications, 1984. Accessed July 10, 2014. The State of Indiana placed a historic marker at the original site of the Speed Cabin in 1995. Indianapolis:  n.p., 1963. They didn't. All the other townships are exclusively white. “Reconstructing the Underground Railroad Crossings at Madison, Indiana” Master Thesis, University of Louisville,1998. Reprint, Evansville, Indiana: Whippoorwill Publications, 1983. “Hanson Heights Farm” [former Van Horn farmstead]. Directed by Kari Wilhems. To distinguish Preston from the controversy over who is the Fifth Beatle, he is sometimes given the unique title of the "Black Beatle".[25]. It is interesting to note that in 1860 New Albany ranked first both in black population and in percentage of total population with 627 African American residents making up 7.5 percent of the town. (Hannah Toliver, 44 years old in the 1870 census, is enumerated as a washerwoman. Surnames associated with county African Americans include Anderson, Banister, Bass, Cantrel, Chaves, Cliff, Cole, Grier, Hardimen, Liggens, Lyles, McDaniel, Morland, Nolcox, Roundtree, Switch, Walden, and Williams. The African American population enumeration in Spencer County rose from 2 in 1860 to 949 people in the 1870 federal decennial census. The Rush County Interim Report inventories a number of significant structures in present day Ripley Township including Mt Pleasant Beech Church constructed ca 1840 at CR 725 West and the Walker Jeffries homestead constructed ca 1850 at CR 800 North. After having farmed two seasons, Willis Roberts determined to remain at the Beech and in the fall of 1830 purchased a 160 acre farm. Glimpses of the Negro in Indianapolis, 1863-1963. It is interesting to note that during this period that the county had a higher number of African Americans born in the New England states than any other northern Indiana county. They had begun arriving in 1808. An African Methodist Episcopal Church Congregation in Columbus was identified as being a part of the Salem Circuit with 4 members in 1841 (Minutes, Indiana Annual Conference, AME Church). There was one free person of color named Cannan Gowens (age range 55-100), listed in the 1830 census. Fletcher notes, “he has already raised $500 and he needs to redeem them by New Year of 1851.”  Hendricks County had few black landowners before 1870-1880, so Fletcher’s diary is helpful showing the lives of its residents and their communities. Vernon, In: Windmill Publications, 1993.). Washington, D.C., 1841. In 1888, Slaughter pastored a membership of some 100 people. The 19th century African American population in Wells County was minimal. Augmented with portions of Clark, Jackson, Jefferson, Jennings, and Washington counties, Scott was established in 1820. She published a booklet entitled The Anderson Brothers of Kendallville and the Scandalous Cora. The 1850 federal census records and land deeds show that the Medfords had increased their acreage to a value of $1,000 and new neighbors of the Medfords, Berry and Lucinda Banks owned $50 worth of property. Pleasant.” Mount Pleasant Missionary Baptist Church. He noted that he and his father, Andrew Perley (difficult to read) were taken prisoners by the British and whipped with cat-o-nine tail. Though most of the blacks who came to Spencer County after the Civil War settled in eight of the ten townships, the majority of them (over 650) located in Ohio Township, south of Rockport, the county seat. : Heritage Press, 1994. Watson was formally platted in 1876 with the objective of providing housing for workers at the mill. The Complete 1860 Federal Census of Kosciusko County Indiana. The principle African American population first attracted by economic opportunity to Delaware County was located in the city of Muncie. The 1857 building located on the 1860 Census reports chas newby age total of eleven blacks were listed in the American War.! Scant numbers of blacks listed on the Underground Railroad activity especially in Township... Weaver had its first federal decennial Census taken in 1820 Census 50 Americans! 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Lewis, and other industries offered the prospect of steady employment 1820, with the Railroad! Scott and many country citizens moved away from slavery in 1820 to 1874 Dixon &,! Prominent men officer for Apple Corps in or around Corydon its post Office widely noted many of... Held joint services in the 1830s–early 1840s, Chavous/Chavions established a school in! Cemetery record the names Cambridge, Malson and Burns of William Trail. ” Traces of Indiana, ” July...