Les chefs de clan écossais, vivant sur leurs terres pour protéger une communauté aux liens souvent familiaux, sont … Debating the Highland Clearances introduces the Highland Clearances as a classic historical problem. The weather has also been blamed - a succession of bad harvests and famine demanding a drastic solution. In the economic theory of the day, powered by thinkers like Adam Smith, the remnant of the Highland population would learn to diversify. In the space of less than half a century, the Highlands became one of the most sparsely populated areas in Europe. The Highland Clearances also generated a great deal of contemporary controversy and documentation. Please feel freel to contact me if you would like to promote a link to a website that supports suitable activities and tourism in Scotland that will help individuals and visitors to appreciate the clearances and Scotland. The Cultural Impact Of The Highland Clearances This forum is for topics not related to aviation. The Highland Clearances embody a complex dynamic of class, cultural, and economic factors, and the potential for many fruitful lines of inquiry. But not all of the people cleared from the townships were cleared from the Highlands. At first this was tinged with bitterness and regret, over what those who left might have become if they had not been forced out. Although the population was quite widely dispersed, the main settlements were in the fertile Lowlands - such as the coastal areas of the rivers Forth and Tay, the lower Clyde valley, and Aberdeen and Moray. Reconstruction of the township of Raitts at the Highland Folk Museum, Newtonmore, based on archaeological and documentary evidence. The Clearances have been seen as an act of greed and betrayal, an attempt by the ruling class to preserve their wealth by sacrificing their people. ...the results have had a lasting significance for the people of the Highlands... People at the time, and since, have seen the Clearances as an act of greed and betrayal on the part of the ruling class in the Highlands: an attempt to hold on to their land and preserve their wealth and status by sacrificing their people. The Sutherland clearances were commenced in a comparatively mild way in 1807, by the ejection of ninety families from Farr and Lairg. These people were truly the 'Dispossessed'. The croft would give them a measure of subsistence, while they transformed their lives. This book focuses on the museum representations of the Highland Clearances - a much neglected aspect of one of the most disputed and politically-charged issues in modern Scottish history. In the first place, the Highland Clearances transformed the cultural landscape of the Highlands of Scotland, probably forever. The action was justified by the setting up of the Napier Commission, which heard evidence from people who had either been cleared themselves or, more usually, from people who were their descendants. Certainly, however, by the beginning of the 20th century, this feeling been largely transformed into an emotion of high romanticism. Read more. The middle decades of the 19th century saw the Highlands of Scotland at the centre of a national debate on land reform. For a hundred years, then, this threat hung over the crofting population, and remained an ever-present reality in their lives. All photographs recognised as authors own unless otherwise stated. The Highland Land League, closely linked to its Irish counterpart, was involved in actions of land reform agitation which saw police from Glasgow and even the British Army brought in to subdue land raids and other militant actions by the Highlanders. The outcome was the enactment of two Crofting Acts, giving the people of the Highlands a measure of protection in their tenure of land probably greater than they had ever had in the days of the townships. They desired above all to feel that they would never again suffer the indignity of being removed from the land of their forefathers. All comments and replies to posts will be checked to ensure that they support the spirit in which this blog has been developed. His publications include: 'Creel Houses of the Scottish Highlands' in From Corrib to Cultra edited by Trefor M Owen (Belfast, 2000) and 'On the Trail of Folk Furniture: A Highland Heritage shared across the seas' in Sharing the Earth edited by JM Fladmark (London, 1995). So new settlements grew up, like Bettyhill (named after Elizabeth, Countess of Sutherland, in whose name some of the most infamous clearances where people were literally burned out of their townships were carried out), Helmsdale, Spinningdale and a host of others, which were the forerunner of new industrial estates. By the time the worst of the Clearances were over and the remnants of that rank and file were settled precariously in the crofting townships - with no guarantee of security of tenure and subject to economic pressures totally beyond their control - that situation was altered for ever. why so many soldiers survived the trenches. Many of the economic initiatives, in which they had been expected to take part, failed, often because of the vast distances between remote crofting communities and their potential markets in the south. (NC 689417). The Cultural Impact of the Highland Clearances In this article, by Ross Noble, and published by the BBC History unit, Ross Noble assesses what really went on during the Clearances. The Clearance of Strath Naver, Rosal Township; An ... Rosal: Deserted Township. They would become weavers, kelp workers (burning seaweed used to make iodine), commercial fishermen, and so on. The Clearances have been seen as an act of greed and betrayal, an attempt by the ruling class to preserve their wealth by sacrificing their people. Such forced movement of people has occurred in many ways and to different degrees in different parts of the world throughout history but always with a huge impact on cultural and economic life. It can be anything really, reflections on why you think Microsoft is a cool company to why you'll never buy a Nissan. • Narratives in a Landscape: Monuments and Memories of the Sutherland Clearances dissertation on the landscape of the Clearances But the struggle had been a long and bitter one, which left scars on the psyche of Highlanders for generations to come. The Highland Clearances. Ullapool in Wester Ross, Tobermory on the Island of Mull, and Pultneytown (now part of Wick) in Caithness. BBC © 2014 The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Rising population, putting pressure on land and jobs, also played a part, as did the persuasive, smooth-talking agents of ship-owners who ferried indentured servants to the rapidly expanding United States of America. Les Highland Clearances ou Fuadaich nan Gàidheal sont des déplacements forcés de la population des Highlands écossais au XVIIIe siècle, qui ont pris de l'ampleur à partir de la rébellion jacobite de 1708 et de l'Acte de Désarmement de 1716, pour culminer après la bataille de Culloden. The only way a 21st-century Highlander can experience something of how his or her ancestors lived 300 years ago, is to visit the archaeological reconstruction of a Highland township (or baile) at the Highland Folk Museum in Newtonmore. Highland clearances. Some historians try to give the topic an objectivity, by associating it with a process of economic and agricultural change which was widespread across Europe at the time. It is ironic that they give respect to, or even venerate, the chiefly families who were responsible for their departure in the first place. Unsuitable comments will be removed. The Highland Clearances resulted in the destruction of the traditional clan society and began a pattern … These crofting townships are still a significant part of the cultural landscape today, but they were never meant to provide people with a living. The removals cleared the land of people primarily to allow for the introduction of sheep pastoralism. It consistently provokes people to take sides and has led to deep, and sometimes acrimonious academic debate. View the landscape today, and you will see a couple of stone-built houses for the shepherds. Sutherland. The buildings were substantial, but used materials alien to us in the western world today. The Highland Clearances took place over a period of about 100 years, the seeds of which took place in the aftermath of the battle of Culloden in 1746 and the disintegration of the traditional clan system. It’s thought that, in 1755, 51% of the Scottish population lived in the Highlands, but by 1981, this had fallen to just 21%. Since the re-establishment of the Scottish parliament, with its stated interest in land reform, there has been a rise in serious scrutiny of land ownership, land use and history. One such line is whether the Highland Clearances can be understood in the context of colonialism. Undoubtedly this motive was present in some instances, with weak people taking advantage of even weaker ones under the guise of economic reform or social reorganisation. For those who were left behind, the psychological trauma created a deep culture of dependency. In A radical wing of the Liberal Party, then one of the 'big two' in Westminster politics, took the lead most of the time, and radical liberalism reigned supreme in the Highlands. In this article, by Ross Noble, and published by the BBC History unit, Ross Noble assesses what really went on during the Clearances. Now that the gloomy shadows of these forced expulsions are passing, Ross Noble assesses what really went on. 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